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Asia has been the continent most affected by recent fertility decline and the ensuing changes in age structures. At the same time, several Asian countries have seen their sex ratios at birth (SRB) gradually increase since the 1980s. This rise has led to a gradual masculinization of their populations, the impact of which will be felt until the second half of the 21st century. This paper uses two different population trajectories for exploring the overall consequences of current masculinization processes in China and India. We first define the most optimistic scenario of future reduction of birth masculinity in the future and use it as the basis for population projections until 2100. We then define a normal-SRB scenario, in which population structures are mostly determined by the tempo of the demographic transition. Results from both sets of population projections are then compared to compute the overall effects of demographic masculinization in terms of population loss, gender imbalance, and differences in total and age specific sex ratios.


Asia has been the continent most affected by recent fertility decline and the ensuing changes in age structures. At the same time, several Asian countries have seen their sex ratios at birth (SRB) gradually increase since the 1980s. This rise has led to a gradual masculinization of their populations, the impact of which will be felt until the second half of the 21st century. This paper uses two different population trajectories for exploring the overall consequences of current masculinization processes in China and India. We first define the most optimistic scenario of future reduction of birth masculinity in the future and use it as the basis for population projections until 2100. We then define a normal-SRB scenario, in which population structures are mostly determined by the tempo of the demographic transition. Results from both sets of population projections are then compared to compute the overall effects of demographic masculinization in terms of population loss, gender imbalance, and differences in total and age specific sex ratios.