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Acute otitis media (AOM) and pneumonia are among the most common infectious diseases of children. Both are mucosal infections and share many common features such as etiological agents, pathogenesis and immunity. Influenza plays an important role in the pathogenesis of AOM and pneumonia. A vaccine against influenza may have substantial impact on these diseases during the influenza season. In clinical trials, influenza vaccine has reduced the incidence of AOM and pneumonia complicating influenza in children. However, the efficacy of vaccines has been controversial in children less than 2 years of age. Similarly, vaccines against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), both common causes of AOM and pneumonia, have the potential to reduce the impact of disease. Clinical trials showed that the currently licensed 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), administered during infancy, had an efficacy of 6-7% for the prevention of AOM, however, visits to the clinic for AOM were reduced by up to 20-30% after routine use in the U.S. Both Hib and PCVs have a proven effectiveness of >20% for prevention of radiologically confirmed pneumonia in children. The recently introduced pnuemococcal vaccine conjugated with protein D is expected to reduce AOM and pneumonia caused by non-typable H. influenzae, in addition to its effects on pneumococcal diseases. Considering their high incidence in children, recent achievements in the prevention of AOM and pneumonia with vaccines may have a significant economic and social impact.