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Water-soluble Chitosans, CsAa CsAam, were prepared by grafting acrylic acid and acrylamide on an amino group of chitosan (Cs), and identified the structure of grafted chitosan using 1 H-NMR and FT-IR. The chitosan derivatives were used to improve the solubility of chitosan in water. The deacetylation degree of the chitosan was 91.2%. The viscosity-average molecular weights of Cs, CsAa, and CsAam were 5.36 × 10 5 , 6.76 × 10 5 , and 1.78 × 10 6 , respectively. Good antibacterial effects of chitosan derivatives with three types of bacteria (that is, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Escherichia coli ) is Cs < CsAa < CsAam.