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Objectives:It is widely accepted that there are problems of parent-child relationship in children with attention de- ficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their mothers. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the relationship among ADHD, maternal depressive symptoms, and parenting behavior in a community sample. Methods:We in ves t i- gated 783 1st grade-children and their mothers. The subjects were 46 children with ADHD and 627 controls. The mothers completed parent-report questionnaires containing Korean ADHD Rating Scale-IV, Beck Depression In- ventory, and Korean Maternal Behavior Inventory. Research team that consist of psychiatrist and psychologist diagnosed ADHD using K-SADS-PL (Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version, K-SADS-PL). Results:Mothers of children with ADHD reported more depressive symptoms than mothers of controls. Moreover, mothers of children with ADHD were more authoritative controlling and over- protective, and less reasonably guided and affectionate than mothers of controls. In correlation analysis, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with authoritative control and children’s ADHD symptoms were associated with overprotection in ADHD patients. Conclusion:In a community sample, we identified that mothers of child- ren with ADHD have more depressive symptoms and more negative parenting behavior than mothers of controls. Negative parenting behavior was associated with maternal depressive symptoms and children’s ADHD symptoms in mothers with ADHD children. These findings suggest that the control of maternal depression as well as treatment of ADHD could be important to treat their children with ADHD.