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21세기가 직면한 인간 삶의 가장 거대한 문제는 지구 환경에 대한 것이다. 이러한 인간 사회의 문제는 교육에서의 역할 분담을 요구하여 왔다. 그러나 현재의 초등미술교육은 이러한 역할의 적절한 수행에 많은 문제점을 내포하고 있다. 초등미술교과의 자연과 환경교육은 형식적이고 비효율적인 교육 논리와 방법, 그리고 반 생태적 교육 환경에서 진행되고 있다. 이러한 현상은 미술교과 교재와 교육실천에 관련한 제 환경과 같은 미술교육과정에서의 문제와 자연, 인간, 그리고 미술교육간의 관계에 대한 이론적 이해의 문제점, 그리고 실천과 관련되어 있다. 본 연구는 자연에 대한 생태중심의 시각에서, 자연과 환경에 대한 미술교육과정과 미술교육활동과 관련한 제 환경적 요인들이 자연과 환경의 이해와 실천에 미치는 문제점에 대한 고찰에 그 초점을 두었다.


The ultimate purpose of school education is to satisfy the need both in each person and society. Ecological crisis is one of the urgent issues over the world. The elementary school in South Korea has not properly handled on this global issue through art education even though there has been a rapidly growing concern on the issue in it's society. This trouble has been related with the following facts. First, the educational goals and contents in art education which related to nature and environment are centered on a view of anthropocentric nature. Second, the concept of art as educational means for understanding of beauty in nature and environment is based upon formalism in aesthetics. Third, a view of anthropocentric nature also has been influencing on learning and teaching in art education. Epistemology we have on nature broadly includes anthropocentric view of nature and ecological view of nature. In the anthropocentric view of nature the criteria for the importance and necessity of nature in the world is centered on human's need. And the purposes of art education in this view of nature focus on how to understand nature as useful sources for human life, on how to use them properly, and on developing the attitude to conserve and take care of them. Instead, in ecological view of nature, the criteria for the importance and necessity of nature in the world is based upon the relationships among things in nature. And human being is considered as one of things in nature. Art educational approaches to nature focus on understanding of things in nature as living organism, on seeing nature not as materials and means for human's need but as beings like friends of human, and on developing the attitudes to keep the relationships with those friends. Formalism in aesthetics deals with characteristics of external shape of things only focusing on graphic elements such as lines and colors and their compositional relationships. Inner contexts to the thing are totally excluded. Therefore understanding of nature in art education in this aesthetics do not deal with internal understanding of nature. Environment aesthetics deals with external and internal understanding of things focusing on their relations, which is closely related to the ecological view of nature. Along with these, the facts in educational environments which affect the practice of art education for nature are creativity-centered art practices, the effects of modernistic concept of aesthetic experience, and the changing environment for school art education by the ongoing development in modern science and rapid economy. In spite of all obstacles mentioned above, problems could be lessened by school teachers' efforts to develope their understanding in theoretical knowledge on epistemology, aesthetic approaches to nature, and school environments, which related with art and education.