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Tuberculosis is a disease with high morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. Despite significant improvements in diagnostic methods, scientific researches and clinical trials for new regimens of treatment or prevention in adult tuberculosis, childhood tuberculosis has been relatively neglected. Children are at high risk of severe disease, and reactivation of latent infection in adulthood perpetuates the epidemic. Therefore, a policy of tuberculosis control in childhood should be emphasized to improve control in the total population. To understand the new view of childhood tuberculosis, this article describes changes in the disease's national epidemiology, new diagnostic tools and treatment strategies, and multi-drug resistance.