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Health promotion policies have needed to assess in detailed and evidence-based work to set a policy goal and clear future directions of health promotion in Korea. To identify the major factors related with health promotion, we assessed the associations between public health outcome (potential years of life loss, PYLL) and national health determinants. For this purpose, we used a pooled cross sectional time-series regression analysis with corrected fixed effect models involving sixteen member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development during the period 1970 to 2001. The PYLL was positively associated with tobacco and alcohol consumption (model 1 and 2) and calories intake (model 2 and 3) while the PYLL was negatively associated with GDP, fruit and vegetable intake (model 2), number of doctors (model 3), coverage rates of health care security, and elderly population rates (model 4). In conclusion, health behaviors related with tobacco, alcohol, and nutrition were significant health determinants for health outcome. Overall analysis results of this study will provide a guidance toward improved macro- and micro-policy development for future health promotion policy in Korea.