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The goal of this study was to predict the health outcomes of lung cancer surgery based on the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). An attempt was likewise made to assess the prognostic value of such data for predicting mortality, survival rate, and length of hospital stay. A medical-record review of 389 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer was performed. To evaluate the agreement, the kappa coefficient was tested. Logistic-regression analysis was also conducted within two years after the surgery to determine the association of CCI with death. Survival and multiple-regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between CCI and the hospital care outcomes within two-year survival after lung cancer surgery and the length of hospital stay. The results of the study showed that CCI is a valid prognostic indicator of two-year mortality and length of hospital stay, and that it shows the health outcomes, such as death, survival rate, and length of hospital stay, after the surgery, thus enabling the development and application of the methodology using a systematic and objective scale for the results.