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The purpose of this study was to find factors affecting health of the rural residents. The data were collected from a sample of 2,587 people aged from 40 to 70 in the year 2005-2006, Wonju City and Pyeongchang County, Gangwon-do, Korea. The theoretical model adopted in this study was the Lalonde's health field(human biology, environment, lifestyle, and health care organization). SF-12 was used to measure subjective health status. In the category of human biology, men were healthier than women. Age and BMI showed negative relation to health status. Income, education and social support showed positive relation to health status in the environment category. In the category of life style, stress showed negative relation to health status. Medical expenses showed negative relation to health status in the category of health care organization. After converting SF-12 score to percentage score, the health determinants portions were 47% lifestyle, 26% environment, 18% human biology and 9% health care organization. These findings suggest that life style, environment and biology are main factors in determinants of health. Especially stress in the life style category is more focused for the community health promotion. We also may be able to improve income, education and social support in the environment category with self empowerment efforts, community supports and government helps. Finally greater attention must be payed to life style in the future health planning and budget allocation priority in the healthcare area.