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Lungs require an adequate supply of vitamin A (retinol) for normal embryonic development, postnatal maturation, and maintenance and repair during adult life. However, recent intervention studies revealed that supplementation with retinoids resulted in higher incidence of lung cancer, although the mechanisms underlying this effect are still unknown. Here, we studied the effect of vitamin A supplementation on oxidative stress parameters in lungs of Wistar rats. Vitamin A supplementation at either therapeutic (1,000 and 2,500IU/kg) or excessive (4,500 and 9,000IU/kg) doses for 3, 7, or 28 days induced lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and oxidation of protein thiol groups, as well as change in catalase and superoxide dismutase activity. Together, these results suggest that vitamin A supplementation causes significant changes in redox balance, which are frequently associated with severe lung dysfunction.