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The effects of chromium (Cr), dietary crude protein (CP) level, and potential interactions of these two factors were investigated in term of energy metabolism in lambs. Forty-eight 9-week-old weaned lambs (Dorper×Small-tail Han sheep, male, mean initial body weight = 22.96 ㎏±2.60 ㎏) were used in a 2×3 factorial arrangement of supplemental Cr (0 ㎍/㎏, 400 μg/㎏ or 800 ㎍/㎏from chromium yeast) and protein levels (low protein: 157 g/d to 171 g/d for each animal, or high protein: 189 g/d to 209 g/d for each animal). Blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of the feeding trial. The lambs were then sacrificed and tissue samples were frozen for further analysis. Chromium at 400 μg/㎏ decreased fasting insulin level and the ratio of plasma insulin to glucagon, but these differences were not statistically significant; in contrast, chromium at 800 ㎍/㎏ increased the ratio significantly (p<0.05). Protein at the high level increased plasma tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) level (p = 0.060). Liver glycogen content was increased significantly by Cr (p<0.05), which also increased liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) and adipose hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity. At 400 ㎍/㎏, Cr increased muscle hexokinase (HK) activity. High protein significantly increased G-6-Pase activities in both the liver (p<0.05) and the kidney (p<0.05), but significantly decreased fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue (p<0.05). For HSL activity in adipose tissue, a Cr×CP interaction (p<0.05) was observed. Overall, Cr improved energy metabolism, primarily by promoting the glycolytic rate and lipolytic processes, and these regulations were implemented mainly through the modulation by Cr of the insulin signal transduction system. High protein improved gluconeogenesis in both liver and kidney. The interaction of Cr×CP indicated that 400 ㎍/㎏ Cr could reduce energy consumption in situations where energy was being conserved, but could improve energy utilization when metabolic rate was increased.