초록 close

The local administrative centers(邑治) of the Joseon dynasty period were centers of local ruling and administration, yet they were not mere ruling centers, they served as central locations that functioned as economic centers and important traffic junctures inside local areas. But the ‘scenery’ of such local administrative centers had never been examined from a historical perspective, and most of the studies have only analyzed the forms of those sceneries and perceived them as forms that could fall into a same category that had been labelled as ‘traditional form’. The so-called ‘traditional’ scenery of the local administrative centers can be characterized with its inherent geomantic configuration of their own inner spaces, and as we can see from the term ‘traditional’, many people tend to perceive them as products created outside the frame of time or history. This ‘traditional’ scenery of the local administrative centers is understood as a result that was established out of efforts of trying to adjust to the climatic environment (of Korea) which has many mountains and also a Northwest seasonal wind, and as a result that also came from a situation where people could get logs to burn and wild edible greens from the mountains and engage in agricultural production by using water from the rivers. We could say that the formation of this ‘traditional’ scenery of the local administrative centers has only been explained with variables that were not necessarily products of a particular time period. And the examples which did not fit with the ‘traditional’ scenery of the local administrative centers have been casually explained as a result of mere geological reasons. But we should be aware that the so-called ‘traditional’ scenery of the local administrative centers were only formed around the transitional period between the Goryeo and Joseon periods, and that such particular ‘traditional’ scenery of the Joseon dynasty had been perceived as a typical norm and also a norm beyond time. Unlike the local administrative offices of the Joseon period, which were usually positioned in auspicious places located in front of ‘main mountains’(in terms of geomancy), the administrative centers(治所, including the office buildings) of either the ancient or Goryeo dynasty were usually located ‘on’ the mountains(which generally served as ‘anterior mountains’ for the Joseon local administrative centers). And in those periods, political and military reasons mainly determined the locations of local administrative centers. We can see that the most important aspect of the scenery of the local administrative centers, namely the location itself, was so different between the ancient & Goryeo periods and the Joseon period, so it would be difficult to say that the former period’s ‘scenery’ was based upon geomantic elements just like the Joseon dynasty’s ‘scenery’. In the meantime, Goryeo dynasty’s capital itself happened to have geomantic elements, unlike the local administrative centers of the same period. The Gaegyeong capital was a relatively new one, and when it was named capital of the dynasty it was given a rebirth and a nature that was unattached to any previous norms inherited from the Shilla dynasty’s local administrative institutions, and in the process it was equipped with geomantic elements as well, which were never present in earlier periods' capitals. Unlike the ancient & Goryeo dynasty periods, in Joseon dynasty many of the local administrative centers in Gun & Hyeon units were showing geomantic elements and considerations, and it was basically because when the local administrative units(which had assumed the form of mountain fortresses) moved to the nearby plain areas during the transitional period between the Goryeo and Joseon dynasty, many regions established their own new local administrative center structures that were modeled after the main capital. In the wake of this kind of transformation that occurred inside the local ruling order which was also led by the state and the local officials, local administrative centers could no longer exist as beings either different from or unrelated to the central capital. And the traditional ruling class of the Goryeo dynasty period, the Hyangri class, was also replaced by local Sajok figures(在地士族), who embraced Neo-Confucian ideology and tried to put local communities and society in a more universal order, unlike the Hyangri class members. All these variables and reasons overlapped with each other, and the local administrative centers came to equip themselves with capital-like structures based upon geomantic elements inside them. Aside the transformation of the inner structure of the space surrounding the local administrative centers(modeled after the central capital), the embracement of the Chinese culture and aspects of Sino-centric order contributed to the formation of the traditional scenery of the local administrative centers as well. This we can clearly see from the locations(positioning) of the shrines(祠廟). Except the literary shrines attached to the Hyanggyo local schools, the positions of Seonghwang-sa(城隍祠), Sajik-dan, Yeo-dan(厲壇) within the traditional scenery of the local administrative centers were all results of the embracement of the so-called Hongmu ritual protocols(洪武禮制) of Ming(明) dynasty. Establishing shrines based upon the Hongmu ritual protocols during the Joseon dynasty period was not a result of an attitude trying to unconditionally accept and embrace Ming dynasty’s institutions and culture. It was rather a result of establishing universal order and institution, based upon a new world perspective recognizing Sino-centralism and enlightenment based upon teachings of protocols, as ‘universality’. Due to these historical circumstances, the scenery of the local administrative centers of the Joseon dynasty period, which composed the outfit of the ‘traditional scenery’ of the local administrative centers in Korea, came to form a typical norm, and in the meantime it also came to feature a variety of shapes which escaped the contemporary trends, because of several social and historical variables rather than geological reasons.