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1. 전근대 사회의 전쟁・불교・추도 헤이안시대의 「고료우(御霊) 신앙」의 양상과, 앞으로 나타날 「적-아군 공양」의 실례를 들어 「국가사적」의 지정 등, 현재에도 이어지는 사상이 되고 있다는 것을 명확히 한다. 그 근거는 「원친평등(怨親平等)」이라고 하는 불교 사상이지만, 그것의 확산은 적십자정신의 일본사적 기원을 묻는 것부터 시작하고 있다. 쓰지 젠노스케(辻善之助)의 『日本の博愛』(일본의 박애, 1932년 간행)도 중요하지만, 그것에 앞선 일본 적십자사 쿄토 지부편의 『忠愛』(1910년 간행)도 놓칠 수 없다. 츠지가 거론한 사례 가운데 10 가지는, 평가도 그대로 『충애』로부터 채록 되고 있다, 라고 생각되기 때문이다. 그 사례에 의하면 무장들은, 「고료 신앙」과 「원친평등」사상을 병립시키고 있었다. 2. 근대국가의 전쟁 −종교인의 종군− 군대도, 대일본제국 헌법 아래에 있어, 특정의 종교를 일상적으로 들여올 수 없었다. 그러나 주둔지나 군사학교 등에 설치된 「영내 신사」, 초혼사나 호국 신사ㆍ야스쿠니 신사에의 집단 참배 등, 신도(神道) 행사에 부대 단위로 참가하는 일이 차츰 많아졌다. 전시하에는 청일전쟁 이래 「종군승려」, 「종군 신관」등이 지원의 형태로 인정되어, 사단이나 여단에서의 위령제에서 활약했다. 3. 근대국가의 추도 −종교의 역할− 국가와 군대, 부현이나 시ㆍ쵸(町)ㆍ촌 등의 행정레벨이 다른 추도의식의 실상을 검토하여, 국가가 집행하는 야스쿠니신사의 위령제가 특이한 것이었다는 사실을 논증한다.


1. WarㆍBuddhismㆍmourning in pre-modern society This article is to clarify that there is a descended thought up to today, like 'designation of national monument' with examples such as 'Goryo(spirit) belief' of the Heian age and 'Memorial service of enemy and our forces' of later age. Though its basis located on a Buddhist thought called 'equality of enemy and friend(怨親平等)', its spread began from the question of Japanese origin of Red Cross spirit. The Philantrophy of Japan(published at 1932) of Tsuji Jennosuke is very important, but also Chuai(忠愛, published at 1910) of Japan Red Cross Kyoto Chapter should not be neglected. It is considered that ten cases among Tsuji took up were almost exactly following after Chuai, including its estimates. According to those cases, generals were establishing abreast of 'Goryo belief' and thought of 'equality of enemy and friend'. 2. War of modern nation − Serving at War of Man of Religion − Military, ruled under the Constitution of Japanese Empire, could not ordinarily bring specific religion in. However, participation by unit in Shinto affairs had been increased, such as group worship at 'inside barrack's Shinto shrines' established in military station or military academy, at Shokonsya, Hokoku-jinjya or Yasukuni-jinjya. At the war time, since the Sino-Japanese war, 'war campaign Buddhist monk', 'war campaign Shinto priest' and so on are admitted as a form of volunteer, and were actively performed at memorial services of brigade or division. 3. Mourning in modern nation − Role of Religion − Memorial services of different levels of administrations which are organized by nation and military, prefecture and small municipality, have been investigated their realities, then it would proved the fact that the memorial service at Yasukuni-jinjya organized by nation was unique event.


1. WarㆍBuddhismㆍmourning in pre-modern society This article is to clarify that there is a descended thought up to today, like 'designation of national monument' with examples such as 'Goryo(spirit) belief' of the Heian age and 'Memorial service of enemy and our forces' of later age. Though its basis located on a Buddhist thought called 'equality of enemy and friend(怨親平等)', its spread began from the question of Japanese origin of Red Cross spirit. The Philantrophy of Japan(published at 1932) of Tsuji Jennosuke is very important, but also Chuai(忠愛, published at 1910) of Japan Red Cross Kyoto Chapter should not be neglected. It is considered that ten cases among Tsuji took up were almost exactly following after Chuai, including its estimates. According to those cases, generals were establishing abreast of 'Goryo belief' and thought of 'equality of enemy and friend'. 2. War of modern nation − Serving at War of Man of Religion − Military, ruled under the Constitution of Japanese Empire, could not ordinarily bring specific religion in. However, participation by unit in Shinto affairs had been increased, such as group worship at 'inside barrack's Shinto shrines' established in military station or military academy, at Shokonsya, Hokoku-jinjya or Yasukuni-jinjya. At the war time, since the Sino-Japanese war, 'war campaign Buddhist monk', 'war campaign Shinto priest' and so on are admitted as a form of volunteer, and were actively performed at memorial services of brigade or division. 3. Mourning in modern nation − Role of Religion − Memorial services of different levels of administrations which are organized by nation and military, prefecture and small municipality, have been investigated their realities, then it would proved the fact that the memorial service at Yasukuni-jinjya organized by nation was unique event.