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헌법재판소의 교육법 관계 위헌 판례를 중심으로 교육법의 정당성을 검토하였다. 위헌 판례는 미국의 Brown 판결이나 Tinker 판결과 같이 교육법의 방향을 검토하는 데 중요한 의미를 갖는다. 헌법재판소는 위헌판례에서 학습자와 학부모의 헌법상 기본권을 확립하였고, 무상교육의 범위에 대한 논의를 확장하였으며, 공무담임권을 적극적으로 보호하려는 입장을 취하였다. 또한, 교육제도 법정주의에 대해 형식적 법정주의와 실체적 법정주의의 두 가지를 모두 중요하게 다루었다. 앞으로 위헌 판례의 취지가 실질적으로 실현되기 위한 노력이 요구된다. 헌법재판소의 합헌 또는 위헌 판례는 교육법의 헌법적 정당성을 확보하는 데 중요한 기여를 하였지만, 몇 차례의 판례 변경으로 헌법적 기준에 대한 신뢰를 약화시킨 점도 지적할 수 있다.


The Constitutional Court of Korea has contributed substantially to figuring out the constitutional meanings and securing the constitutionality of education law. This article reviewed the decisions of the Constitutional Court of Korea, mainly focusing on the cases involving the education law ruled unconstitutional. The major conclusions are shown below such as; First, the Court held that the Constitution command even how the finance for compulsory education are secured in addition to the range of free education. Moreover, it took a stance of extending the extent of financial support for compulsory education. Second, the Court acknowledged that students are constitutional subjects independent from nation and parents, even though they are subject to the supervision of them. Third, the Court has reasoned that parents have constitutional rights for education of their children, even though the rights are alphabetically written in the Constitution. Fourth, the Court took importance of the right to hold public office as a basic constitutional right, and applied a strict scrutiny test in reviewing the constitutionality of giving favorable points for some applicants. Fifth, the Court ruled that substantial prescription by act is constitutional demand as well as the formal one. The landmark cases of the Court show the directions and contents in the consideration of the revisions of education law. First of all, the rights of parents and students are prescribed so as to adhere to the constitutional meanings. Some examples involve such as home-schooling, privacy of students in the school ground, the evaluation rights for the educational materials and surveys.