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This paper aims to suggest that literacy should be one of the objectives of second language teaching. The proposal is based on New Literacies Studies (Barton 1994; Gee 1990, 2004; Street 1984, 1985) theoretical framework. According to this perspective, literacy, or literacy practices (Street, 1984), is defined as collective practices which are socially and culturally organized (Cole & Scribner, 1981), and which have writing technology as their foundation. First, I define the concept of language use and present the concept of literacy as essential to the development of second language learners’ communicative competence and sociolinguistic proficiency. Relying on previous study (Bortolini, 2006), first I suggest steps for the preparation of didactic material that focus on language use. Next, I present a didactic lesson where the main aim is literacy in the second language. This article concludes that having literacy as a pedagogical objective promotes the language education of more than just language students, but of citizens in general. In the classroom, the study of the target language through activities that focus different social practices encourage students to participate in real contexts of language use (in his/her own society or in a foreign one) in a more autonomous and confident way.