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The purpose of this study was to investigate cognitions of elementary school students of the biological resources. Subjects were 252 elementary school students in Seoul and Busan. An instrument that measures cognitions consists of 3 components: kinds of biological and non-biological resources, values of biological resources and interest of using biological resources. The three components were composed of 46 items. They had less cognition of living things than non-biological resources as resources. But, most of them conceived ecological environment to be resources. Almost 80% elementary school students thought that biological resources had values contributing to the existence and health of human beings, but less economic values except ecological values. They had cognition of biological resources which we should manage and research in. It is time to need the educational approach to integrate nature, economy and environment in environmental education. As concrete cases of biological resources are proposed, it activate elementary school students to get cognition of biological resources. In conclusion, values of biological resources will be materials for environmental education.