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日帝は‘滿洲國’を建てた後、‘國策’で朝鮮人と日本人の滿洲移民を敢行した。20年間(1937~1956) 100萬戶を滿洲へ移住させるという計劃は1932~1926年の試驗期を経て1937~1941年 <滿洲開拓第1期5個年計劃>, 1942~1945年 <滿洲開拓第2期5個年計劃>として展開された。本考では‘滿洲開拓’ 關聯法令及び施行要綱を整理し、朝鮮人政策の變化を分析して朝鮮人開拓民たちの性格を糾明しようとした。現在相當に蓄積されている朝鮮人の‘滿洲國’ 移民に関する硏究の中で具體的に論議されていない1937~1945年の間を中心に1937年の中日戰爭と1941年のアジア太平洋戰爭という情勢によって變化した朝鮮人政策について考察しようとしたのである。 1934年安全農村を通じてはじめて渡滿を始まるようになった朝鮮人たちは1945年まで自由を失い、嚴格に統制され、勞動力を提供するしかなかった。1937年から每年1萬戶の朝鮮人の動員が目標とされたが每年計劃の数に及ばず、1944年には3千戶程度にとどまり、事實上政策は有效ではなかったと見られる。 開拓民の對象は農業のみならず林業·牧畜·商業·工業·鑛業外の階層を包括した。そして政策は計劃通りに進行されなくて16~19歲の靑年建ちを3年間訓練させて集團村を形成する‘滿洲開拓靑年義勇隊’と臨時勞動力で‘滿洲建設勤勞奉仕隊’を動員した。日帝は朝鮮人開拓民たちを通して旣住朝鮮人の定着安定、水田農業による食糧增産、そして軍事力の强化を図ろうとした。朝鮮人開拓民は單なる‘農業移民’者ではなかったのである。


The Japanese imperialists started emigration policy to Manchuria as a national policy in 1932~1945 after they established Manchkuo in 1931. The plan, by the Japanese and the Manchukuo governments, the Japanese military and the Chosun Government-general, was to emigrate 1,000,000 Japanese families for twenty years. In this paper, I tried to elaborate on the process of the cultivation policies and the revised policies adjusted to the situation, by examining the laws concerned and especially to analyse the policies related to Koreans. Koreans went to ‘the safe villages’ in Manchuria based on the cultivation policy for the first time in 1934. About 1,300 families immigrated there until 1936. The First Manchuria Cultivation Plan, 1937~1941 and the Second Manchuria Cultivation Plan, 1942~1945 prompted more Koreans to settle in Manchuria. The new settlers were basically supposed to help previous immigrants by producing rice and to play a military role of strengthening the Northern border. There were also settlers for forestry, stock farming, commerce, industry, mines as well as for agriculture. The younger generation organized the Manchuria Cultivation Youth Volunteer Army who were to form collective villages and the Labor Service Army for Constructing Manchuria to mobilize the provisional labor forces. However, the actual Korean emigration became short of the plans, only fulfilling about 50% of the planned 10,000 families in 1938. Even the Korean immigrants reached 10,000 families in 1939~1943, only a small part of them were collective settlers. As there were only 3,000 families of settlers in 1944, the policy actually ceased to work. Manchuria cultivation policies were prepared as a national policy in order to provide labor forces and various resources for the war and the management of Manchukuo. Generally, Korean settlers lost freedom as a form of harshly controlled immigrants, providing their labor. We need to see the more various characteristics of Korean settlers, which have been covered just as ‘agricultural settlers’ so far.