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This study was conducted to examine the nutritional knowledge and dietary habits by gender and a mother's employment status for middle school students. The subjects consisted of 423 students (212 boys and 211 girls). As for mother's employment status, 61.7% of the mothers were working, and 38.3% were housewives. The results from the analysis on differences of nutritional knowledge and dietary habits showed that girls tended to have a higher nutritional knowledge than boys (p<0.01). In terms of dietary habits, boys appeared to have more desirable eating habits than girls. As for the mother's employment status, only students whose mothers were doing housework tended to have higher nutrition knowledge and more positive dietary habits than students whose mothers were working. The influence of nutritional knowledge was found to have a significant effect on dietary habits (p<0.001). In addition, nutritional knowledge (B=0.168, p<0.01) turned out to have an influence on dietary habits, where a higher nutritional knowledge produced more positive dietary habits. Considering the results described above, nutritional knowledge appears to have a significant influence on dietary habits. Therefore, instructions on the importance of nutritionally well balanced meals must to be reinforced in nutritional education.