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It is necessary to analyze what students possess prior knowledge before class, what changed in their acquired concepts after class. Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to examine and compare the prior knowledge of scientific concepts of 8th grade students in terms of ‘Stimulus and Reaction’ unit acquired after class. For this purpose, 794 students in the 8th grade were surveyed to see what concept they had in relation to the ‘Stimulus and Reaction’ unit before and after class. The results show that the degree of their enhanced comprehension regarding the ‘Stimulus and Reaction’ unit through class stood at a range of 3~8%. Moreover, it appears that the degree of improvement in comprehension was high after class in concepts that the students knew much about prior to class. The students demonstrated conceptual knowledge focused on structure and name. Compared with male students, female students showed higher scores in terms of the number of biology concepts they knew. In addition, female students showed higher scores in the degree of improvement. However, the students’degree of improvement in concepts in biology through class appeared much lower than expected. It is hoped that future research will be carried out to make a contribution to effective teaching methods to improve students’ conceptual knowledge.