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Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus exists in seven serotypes and is known to be a highly contagious disease that is hard to eradicate from the world. The O, A, Asia1 and SAT2 serotypes commonly infected cattle, sheep and goats during 2007~2009 throughout the world. In particular, the outbreak of the Asia1 serotype in China appeared in all areas from 2005 and is still present. Surprisingly, in 2009, Taiwan reported the first outbreak of the type O serotype since 2001. Then type A appeared in China for the first time since the early 1960s. The virus shows a close relationship to the viruses from Southeast Asia suggesting one or more recent introductions into China in the OIE reports. Recently the subtype of A/Iran05 spread to nearby countries exhibiting genomic evolution. The use of molecular epidemiology is an important tool in understanding and consequently controlling the FMD virus. The phylogenetic analysis with VP1 gene was especially useful for molecular epidemiological studies and showed the same pattern which matches with serotype classification. This paper describes basic information about the disease, and the serotype-specific characteristics and evolution to perform molecular epidemiological analysis. Furthermore, we show the importance of the genetic evolution on the FMD serotypes in global surveillance and molecular epidemiology of FMD for outbreak investigation.