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Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) is an efficient approach for gene discovery, expression profiling, and development of resources useful for functional genomics studies. As part of studies on the immune system of olive flounder, a total of 251 EST sequences from gill cDNA library were generated to identify and characterize important genes in the immune machanisms of olive flounder. Of the 251 clones, 126 clones (50.2%) were identified as orthologues of known genes from olive flounder and other organisms. Among the 126 EST clones, 16 clones (12.7%) were representing 9 unique genes identified as homologous to the previously reported olive flounder ESTs, 100 clones (79.4%) representing 103unique genes were identified as orthologs of known genes from other organisms. We also identified several kinds of immune associated proteins, indicating EST as a powerful method for identifying immune related genes of fish as well as identifying novel genes. Further studies using cDNA microarrays are needed to identify the differentially expressed transcripts after disease infection.