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HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access) is a 3.5-generation asynchronous mobile communications service based on the third generation of W-CDMA. In Korea, it is mainly provided in through videophone service. Because of the diffusion of more powerful and diversified services, along with steep advances in mobile communications technology, consumers demand a wide range of choices. However, because of the variety of technologies, which tend to overflow the market regardless of consumer preferences, consumers feel increasingly confused. Therefore, we should not adopt strategies that focus only on developing new technology on the assumption that new technologies are next-generation projects. Instead, we should understand the process by which consumers accept new forms of technology and devise schemes to lower market entry barriers through strategies that enable developers to understand and provide what consumers really want. In the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use are suggested as the most important factors affecting the attitudes of people adopting new technologies (Davis 1989; Taylor and Todd 1995; Venkatesh 2000; Lee et al. 2004). Perceived usefulness is the degree to which a person believes that a particular technology will enhance his or her job performance. Perceived ease of use is the degree of subjective belief that using a particular technology will require little physical and mental effort (Davis, 1989; Morris and Dillon 1997; Venkatesh 2000). Perceived pleasure and perceived usefulness have been shown to clearly affect attitudes toward accepting technology (Davis et al. 1992). For example, pleasure in online shopping has been shown to positively impact consumers' attitudes toward online sellers (Eighmey and McCord, 1998; Mathwick, 2002; Jarvenpaa and Todd 1997). The perceived risk of customers is a subjective risk, which is distinguished from an objective probabilistic risk. Perceived risk includes a psychological risk that consumers perceive when they choose brands, stores, and methods of purchase to obtain a particular item. The ability of an enterprise to revolutionize products depends on the effective acquisition of knowledge about new products (Bierly and Chakrabarti 1996; Rothwell and Dodgson, 1991). Knowledge acquisition is the ability of a company to perceive the value of novelty and technology of the outside (Cohen and Levinthal 1990), to evaluate the outside technology that has newly appeared (Arora and Gambaradella, 1994), and to predict the future evolution of technology accurately (Cohen and Levinthal 1990). Consumer innovativeness is the degree to which an individual adopts innovation earlier than others in the social system (Lee, Ahn, and Ha 2001; Gatignon and Robertson 1985). That is, it shows how fast and how easily consumers adopt new ideas. Innovativeness is regarded as important because it has a significant effect on whether consumers adopt new products and on how fast they accept new products (Midgley and Dowling 1978; Foxall 1988; Hirschman 1980). We conducted cross-national comparative research using the TAM model which empirically verified the relationship between the factors that affect attitudes - perceived usefulness ease of use perceived pleasure perceived risk innovativeness and perceived level of knowledge management - and attitudes toward HSDPA service. We also verified the relationship between attitudes and usage intention for the purpose of developing more effective methods of management for HSDPA service providers. For this research 346 questionnaires were distributed among 350 students in the Republic of Korea. Because 26 of the returned questionnaires were inconsistent or had missing data 320 questionnaires were used in the hypothesis tests. In UK 192 of the total 200 questionnaires were retrieved and two incomplete ones were discarded bringing the total to 190 questionnaires used for statistical analysis. The results of the overall model analysis are as follows: Republic of Korea χ2=333.27(p<0.01) NFI=0.88 NNFI=0.88 CFI=0.91 IFI=0.91 RMR=0.054 GFI=0.90 AGFI=0.84 UK χ2=176.57 (p<0.01) NFI=0.88 NNFI=0.90 CFI=0.93 IFI=0.93 RMR=0.062 GFI=0.90 AGFI=0.84. From the results of the hypothesis tests of Korean consumers about the relationship between factors that affect intention to use HSDPA services and attitudes we can conclude that perceived usefulness ease of use pleasure a high level of knowledge management and innovativeness promote positive attitudes toward HSDPA mobile phones. However ease of use and perceived pleasure did not have a direct effect on intention to use HSDPA service. This may have resulted from the fact that the use of video phones is not necessary for everyday life yet. Moreover it has been shown that attitudes toward HSDPA video phones are directly correlated with usage intention which means that perceived usefulness ease of use pleasure a high level of knowledge management and innovativeness. These relationships form the basis of the intention to buy contributing to a situation in which consumers decide to choose carefully. A summary of the results of the hypothesis tests of European consumers revealed that perceived usefulness pleasure risk and the level of knowledge management are factors that affect the formation of attitudes while ease of use and innovativeness do not have an effect on attitudes. In particular with regard to the effect value perceived usefulness has the largest effect on attitudes followed by pleasure and knowledge management. On the contrary perceived risk has a smaller effect on attitudes. In the Asian model ease of use and perceived pleasure were found not to have a direct effect on intention to use. However because attitudes generally affect the intention to use perceived usefulness pleasure risk and knowledge management may be considered key factors in attitude development from which usage intention arises. In conclusion perceived usefulness pleasure and the level of knowledge management have an effect on attitude formation in both Asian and European consumers and such attitudes shape these consumers’ intention to use. Furthermore the hypotheses that ease of use and perceived pleasure affect usage intention are rejected. However ease of use perceived risk and innovativeness showed different results. Perceived risk had no effect on attitude formation among Asians while ease of use and innovativeness had no effect on attitudes among Europeans.


HSDPA(高速下行分组接入)是在第三代的W-CDMA技术基础上的3.5代移动通信异步服务。在韩国,它主要是通过提供可视电话服务。由于更强大和多元化的服务扩散,随着移动通信技术迅速的进步,消费者需要更多的选择。然而,由于各种技术,不论消费者偏好往往会溢出市场,消费者感到越来越迷惑。因此,我们不应该采取只注重发展假设是下一代新技术项目的战略相反,我们应该了解消费者接受新的形式和技术的过程,通过制定战略,使开发人员能够理解并提供消费者真正想要的,从而降低进入市场的障碍。  在技术接受模型(TAM)中,感知到的有用性和使用的简单性被认为是影响人们接受新技术的态度的最重要因素(Davis 1989; Taylor and Todd 1995; Venkatesh 2000; Lee et al. 2004)。感知到的有用性是一个人相信某种特定的技术能提高他或她工作绩效的程度。感知易用性是主观认为使用某种特定技术不需要太多体力和精力的付出的程度(Davis 1989; Morris and Dillon 1997; Venkatesh 2000)。 感知的愉悦性和感知的有用性已经被清楚的证明对接受技术的态度有影响(Davis et al. 1992)。比如,网上购物的愉悦性已经表现出对消费者对网上商家的态度有积极的影响(Eighmey and McCord 1998; Mathwick 2002; Jarvenpaa and Todd 1997)。 消费者的感知风险是一种主观风险。这种风险和客观可能的风险是有显著区别的。感知风险包括心理上的风险,这是当消费者为某一特定物品而选择品牌,商店和购买方式时所感知到的。  企业革新产品的能力取决于有效的获得有关新产品的知识(Bierly and Chakrabarti 1996; Rothwell and Dodgson 1991)。知识获取是公司感知外界新事物和技术的价值的能力(Cohen and Levinthal 1990);是公司评估外界最新的技术的能力(Arora and Gambaradella 1994);是公司正确预测这项科技对未来革新的能力(Cohen and Levinthal 1990)。 消费者创新是一种在社会体系中比其他人更早接受创新的程度(Lee Ahn and Ha 2001; Gatignon and Robertson 1985)。也就是说,它显示了消费者如何快速、方便地接受新的思路。创新被认为是重要的,因为它对消费者是否接受新产品和他们多快接受新产品有显著的影响(Midgley and Dowling 1978; Foxall 1988; Hirschman 1980)。  我们用技术接受模型来进行跨国家的研究比较,此模型实证验证了影响态度的因素-感知有用性,易用性,感知愉悦,感知风险,创新和感知的知识管理水平-和对HSDPA服务的态度之间的关系。我们为HSDPA服务提供商开发更有效的管理方法还验证了态度和使用意图之间的关系。 在本研究中,我们在韩国350名学生中分发了346份问卷调查。由于其中26份收回的问卷时不完整的或者有缺失数据,所以在假设检验时320份问卷被使用。在英国,200份问卷收回了192份,舍弃了两份不完整的之后,总共有190份问卷用于统计分析中。整体模型的分析结果如下:韩国,χ2=333.27(p<0.01) NFI=0.88 NNFI=0.88 CFI=0.91 IFI=0.91 RMR=0.054 GFI=0.90 AGFI=0.84;英国,χ2=176.57(p<0.01) NFI=0.88 NNFI=0.90 CFI=0.93 IFI=0.93 RMR=0.062 GFI=0.90 AGFI=0.84。 在韩国消费者中,从有关影响HSDPA服务的使用意图和态度之间的关系的假设检验的结果中,感知的有用性,易用性,乐趣,知识管理的高水平和促进创新对HSDPA移动手机的态度有积极的影响。然后,易用性和感知的乐趣对HSDPA服务的使用意图没有直接的影响。这可能是因为在日常生活中使用视频电话还不是必需的这一现实。而且消费者对HSDPA视频电话的态度和使用意图有直接的关系,这些态度包括感知的有用性,易用性,乐趣,知识管理的高水平和创新。这些关系构成了购买意图的基础,并造成消费者决定谨慎购买的情况。 对欧洲消费者的假设检验结果揭示了感知的有用性,乐趣,风险和知识管理水平是影响态度形成的因素,而易用性和创新则对态度没有影响。特别是效果价值和感知有用性,在快乐和知识管理之后对态度有最大的影响。相反,认为感知风险对态度影响较小。 在亚洲模型中易用性和感知的乐趣没有发现对使用意图有直接影响。然而,因为态度广泛的影响使用意图,感知有用性,乐趣,风险和知识管理可被视为从使用意图中的态度发展的关键因素。 总之,感知的有用性,愉悦和知识管理水平在亚洲和欧洲消费者中对态度形成都有影响,这些梯度形成了消费者的使用意图。而且,易用性和感知的乐趣对使用意图的假设被拒绝。 然而,易用性,感知风险和创新有不同的结果。在亚洲消费者中,感知风险对态度形成没有影响,而在欧洲消费者中,易用性和创新对态度都没有影响。


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