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The purpose of this study was to categorize the gap between coffee shop 'importance' (as perceived by customers before patronizing the coffee shop) and 'satisfaction' (perception of customers after patronizing the coffee shop) as positive or negative and to analyze the effect of these gaps on purchasing behavior. To do this, I used the gap between importance and satisfaction regarding the choice of a coffee shop as the explanatory variable and performed an empirical analysis of the direction and size of the effect of the gap on purchasing behavior (overall satisfaction, willingness-to-revisit) by applying the Ordered Probit Model (OPM). A previous study that used IPA to evaluate the effects of gaps estimated the direction and size of a quadrant but failed to analyze the effect of gaps on customers. In this study, I evaluated the effects of positive and negative gaps on customer satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit. Using OPM, I quantified the effect of positive and negative gaps on overall customer satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit. Per-head expenditure, frequency of visits, and coffee-purchasing place had the most positive effects on overall customer satisfaction. Frequency of visits, followed by per-head expenditure and then coffee-purchasing place, had the most positive impact on willingness-to-visit. Thus per-head expenditure and frequency of visits had the greatest positive effects on overall satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit. This finding implies that the higher the actual satisfaction (gap) of customers who spend KRW5,000 or more once or more per week at coffee shops is, the higher their overall satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit are. Despite the fact that economical efficiency had a significant effect on overall satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit, college and university students still use coffee shops and are willing to spend KRW5,000 because they do not only purchase coffee as a product itself, but use the coffee shop for other activities, such as working, meeting friends, or relaxing. College and university students also access the Internet in coffee shops via personal laptops, watch movies, and study; thus, coffee shops should provide their customers with the appropriate facilities and services. The fact that a positive gap for coffee shop brand had a positive effect on willingness-to-revisit implies that the higher the level of customer satisfaction, the greater the willingness-to-revisit. A negative gap for this factor , on the other hand, implies that the lower the level of customer satisfaction, the lower the willingness-to-revisit. Thus, the brand factor has a comparatively greater effect on satisfaction than the other factors evaluated in this study. Given that the domestic coffee culture is becoming more upscale and college/university students are sensitive to this trend, students are attentive to brands. In most upscale coffee shops in Korea, the outer wall is built out of glass that can be opened, the interiors are exotic with an open kitchen. These upscale coffee shops function as landmarks and match the taste of college/university students. Coffee shops in Korea have become a cultural brand. To make customers feel that coffee shops are upscale, good quality establishments and measures to provide better services in terms of brand factor should be instituted. The intensified competition among coffee shop brands in Korea as a result of the booming industry indicates that provision of additional services is needed to differentiate competitors. These customers can also use a scanner free of charge. Another strategy that can be used to boost brands could be to provide and operate a seminar room for seminars and group study. If coffee shops adopt these types of strategies, college/university students would be more likely to consider the expenses they incur worthwhile and, subsequently, they would be more likely to be satisfied with the brands of these coffee shops, with an associated increase in their willingness-to-revisit. Gender and study year had the most negative effects on overall satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit. Female students were more likely to be satisfied and be willing to return than male students, and third and fourth-year students were more likely to be satisfied and willing-to-return than first or second-year students. Students who drink coffee, read books, and use laptops alone at coffee shops are easily noticeable. High-grade students tend to visit coffee shops alone in order to use their time efficiently for self-development and to find jobs. The economical efficiency factor had the greatest effect on overall satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit in terms of a positive gap. The higher the actual satisfaction (gap) of students with the price of the coffee, the greater their overall satisfaction and willingness-to-revisit. Economical efficiency with a negative gap had a negative effect on willingness-to-revisit, which implies that a less negative gap will result in a greater willingness-to-revisit. Amid worsening market conditions, coffee shops located around colleges/universities are using strategies, such as a point or membership card, strategic alliances with credit-card companies, development of a set menu or seasonal menu, and free coffee-shot services to increase their competitive edge. Product power also had a negative effect in terms of a negative gap, which indicates that a higher negative gap will result in a lower willingness-to-revisit. Because there are many more customers that enjoy coffee in this decade, as compared to previous decades, the new generation of customers, namely college/university students, want various menu items in addition to coffee, and coffee shops should, therefore, add side menu items, such as waffles, rice cakes, cakes, sandwiches, and salads. For example, Starbucks Korea is making efforts to enhance product power by selling rice cakes flavored in strawberry, wormwood, and pumpkin, and providing coffee or cream free of charge. In summary, coffee shops should focus on increasing their economical efficiency, brand, and product power to enhance the satisfaction of college/university students. Because shops adjacent to colleges or universities enjoy a locational advantage, providing differentiated services in terms of economical efficiency, brand, and product power, is likely to increase customer satisfaction and return visits. Coffee shop brands should, therefore, be innovative and embrace change to meet their customers’ desires. Because this study only targeted college/university students in Seoul, comparative studies targeting diverse regions and age groups are required to generalize the findings and recommendations of this study.


本研究的目的是对咖啡店的“重要性”(顾客在光顾咖啡店以前的感知)和积极或消极的“满意度”(顾客在光顾咖啡店以后的感受)之间的差距进行分类,并分析这些差距对对购买行为的影响。为此,我使用重要性和满意度之间的差距作为选择咖啡店的解释变量,并通过使用有序Probit模型(OPM)来实证分析差距对购买行为(整体满意度和愿意到再次光顾)的影响方向和大小。先前使用IPA的研究评估了差距影响的方向和大小的象限,但是在分析差距对顾客的影响方面却失败了。在本研究中,我评估了积极和消极的差距对顾客满意度和愿意去再光顾的影响。通过使用OPM,我量化了积极和消极的差距对顾客整体满意度和愿意去再光顾的影响。 每个人的支出,光顾的频率和购买咖啡的地方对顾客整体满意度有最积极的影响。光顾的频率,在每人的支出之后,然后是购买咖啡的地方对顾客整体满意度有最积极的影响。因此每个人的支出和光顾的频率对顾客整体满意度有最积极的影响。这一发现意味着一个在咖啡店每次或每周花费5000韩元的顾客的实际的满意度越高(差距),其整体满意度和愿意去再光顾就越高。虽然经济效益对总体满意度和愿意去再光顾有显著影响,但是大专和大学的学生仍然愿意去咖啡馆并愿意消费5000韩元,因为他们不只是购买咖啡本身而且将咖啡店作为其他活动的场所,例如工作,和朋友见面或是放松的地方。学院和大学的学生还可以在咖啡店通过个人电脑上网,看电影,学习,因此,咖啡馆应对顾客提供适当的设施和服务。 咖啡店品牌的积极差距对愿意去再光顾有积极的影响表明顾客满意度越高,顾客越愿意去再光顾。另一方面,这一因素的消极差距意味着顾客满意度越低,顾客再光顾的意愿也越低。因此,在本研究中,与其他评估的因素相比,品牌因素对满意度有较大的影响。鉴于国内咖啡文化变得越来越高级,大专院校的学生对这一趋势也很敏感,所以学生有很多可选择的品牌。在韩国最高级的咖啡店,外墙是玻璃建造的并可以打开,内部是充满异国情调的开放式厨房。这些高级咖啡店作为标志的功能复合大专院校学生的品味。韩国咖啡店已成为一个文化品牌。从品牌因素来看,为了让顾客觉得这些咖啡店是高级的,高质量的设备和提供更好服务的措施应当建立起来。 韩国咖啡馆作为蓬勃发展的行业品牌竞争加剧的结果表明,提供与竞争对手不同的额外服务是有必要的。顾客可以免费使用扫描仪。另一个可以用来提高品牌的战略是提供和经营为集体学习而准备的讨论会议室。如果咖啡馆采取这些类型的策略,学院/大学的学生将更有可能认为他们承担的费用是值得的,随后,他们将可能更满足这些咖啡馆的品牌,并更愿意再次光顾。 性别和学习年数对总体满意度和再光顾的意愿有最消极的营销。女学生比男学生更容易满足和再光顾。三,四年级的学生比一,二年级的学生更容易满足和再光顾。喝咖啡的学生,单独在咖啡店看书,用笔记本电脑是很容易被注意到的。高年级学生为了有效地利用时间用于自我发展和寻找工作往往独自光顾咖啡店。从积极的差距来看,经济效率这一因素对总体满意度和愿意再光顾有最大的影响。与咖啡价格一起,学生实际满意度(差距)越高,总体满意度和再光顾的意愿也越高。有消极差距的经济效率队再光顾有消极营销的结果表明较小的消极差距可以让再光顾的意愿更高。在持续恶化的市场环境中,坐落在大专院校附近的咖啡店采取诸如积分或会员卡,和信用卡公司的战略联盟,发展套餐菜单或季节菜单和免费咖啡服务这些战略来提高竞争力。 就消极差距而言产品功率也有消极的影响,这表明较高的负差距会导致较低的再光顾的意愿。因为还有更多的客户比前几十年,在这十年里更喜欢咖啡,新一代的客户,即学院/大学的学生,希望除了咖啡还有更重菜单项目。因此,咖啡店应当增加配菜项目,如华夫饼,糕,蛋糕,三明治和沙拉。例如,星巴克韩国正在努力加强卖草莓糕,艾草香味,南瓜产品,并提供免费的咖啡或奶油。 总而言之,咖啡馆应注重提高其经济效率,品牌和产品功率,以加强大专院校学生的满意度。由于店铺毗邻学大专院校可享受地缘优势,就经济效率,品牌和产品功率而言提供不同的服务,很可能会提高客户满意度和回访。咖啡厅的品牌,因此,应不断创新和变化,以满足顾客的愿望。由于这项研究只是针对在首尔的大专院校的学生,需要针对不同地区和年龄组的比较研究来概括本研究的结果和建议。