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1910년대 잡가집의 레퍼토리와 초기 유성기 음반의 레퍼토리가 상당히 일치한다는 점 그리고 20세기 초 음악계의 지형도 내에서 양자의 존재 양태가 같았음을 발견하는 과정에서 잡가집과 초기 유성기 음반을 관통하는 조선대중음악의 기반을 확인할 수 있었다. 음악의 물화(物化)와 양산(量産)화 그리고 음악 상품의 생산과 수용 과정의 합리화는 19세기 시정음악계에서 경험하지 못했던 새로운 양상이었다. 잡가는 19세기까지 지역을 기반으로 향유되었지만, 20세기에는 공적인 음악 향수 환경 속에 대중음악으로 자리를 잡았다. 통속성이 대중음악을 결정하는 충분조건이 될 수 없고, 대중음악이 되기 위에서는 통속성 외에도 그것의 합리적 운영, 분화된 대중예술주체 간의 분업과 소통 등의 절차가 있어야함을 알 수 있었다.


Whilst it is well known a number of Chapgajip were published in 1910s, the characteristics of Chapgajip is not clearly revealed yet. For instance, we do not exactly know what sort of works were in Chapgajip, whether they were actually sung or not, how they were introduced for publication, who published it, who bought it, and so forth. Some recent research works showed that Chapga was created and admitted as a sort of commercial music at the end of nineteenth and the beginning of twentieth centuries. However, since the way of creating and accepting Chapga was different to some degree in nineteenth century and in twentieth century, the Chapga of nineteenth century and that of twentieth century cannot be analyzed on the same line. In this work, the public acceptance of Chapga in twentieth century has been investigated by revealing its commercial music nature. The repertories of early 78 RPM recordings are found to be well in coincidence with those of Chapgajip in 1910s, suggesting the public acceptance of Chapgajip is similar to that of early 78 RPM recordings. In this regard, Chapga has been further explored by intensively studying the 78 RPM recordings in early twentieth century. In 20th century there were radical changes such as reification of music, mass production system, rationalization etc. Through these changes the foundation of pop music was made possible. In this regard, we know merely popularity is not sufficient condition but necessary.