초록 close

Blood samples were collected from eight native Japanese breeds of chickens (Miyadi-dori, Ohiki, Onaga-dori, Shoukoku, Tosa-Jidori, Tosa-Kukin, Toutenkou and Uzurao) and two foreign breeds of chickens (White Leghorn and Rhode Island Red) to examine the genetic variability and relationships among the breeds by using a microsatellite DNA technique. Except for the Shoukoku breed, the other Japanese chicken breeds all originate from Kochi Prefecture. Ohiki, Onaga-dori, Tosa-Jidori, Toutenkou and Uzurao are fancy fowl, and Miyadi-dori and Tosa-Kukin are utility fowl. Among the fancy fowl, Ohiki, Onaga-dori, and Toutenkou males have thick and long feathers in the saddle and tail. Genetic variabilities of the 20 microsatellites examined, varied depending on the breed: the mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 2.05 (Miyadi-dori) to 3.90 (Rhode Island Red); proportion of polymorphic loci ranged from 0.75 (Miyadi-dori) to 1.00 (Rhode Island Red, Shoukoku and Uzurao); and mean expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.330 (Miyadi-dori) to 0.607 (Rhode Island Red). Unique microsatellite alleles were detected in each breed. Using the neighbour-joining method, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the genetic distances of DA and DST. Among the breeds originating from Kochi Prefecture, fancy and utility breeds belonged to different clusters. Among the fancy breeds, those having thick and long feathers in the tail and saddle showed a close genetic relationship to the Shoukoku breed, which also has thick and long feathers in the tail and saddle.