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Objective: To compare the efficiency of intra-arterial, intraportal, and intravenous administration of cationic lipid emulsion/DNA complex, as used for gene transfer to rat liver. Materials and Methods: DNA-carrier complex for the in-vivo experiment was prepared by mixing DNA and a cationic lipid emulsion. According to the administration route used (intra-arterial, intraportal, or intravenous), the animals were assigned to one of three groups. The heart, lung, liver, spleen and kidneys were removed and assayed for total protein and luciferase concentration. Results: The cationic lipid emulsion/DNA complex used successfully transfected the various organs via the different administration routes employed. Luciferase activity in each organ of untreated animals was negligible. Liver luciferase values were significantly higher in the groups in which intra-arterial or intraportal administration was used. Conclusion: The intra-arterial or intraportal administration of cationic lipid emulsion/DNA complex is superior to intravenous administration and allows selective gene transfer to the liver.