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본 연구는 1930년대 우리나라 중등학교 물리교육 과정의 변천, 물리교과서의 내용 및 당시 중등학교의 과학교육 방법을 고찰하였다. 당시 중등 과학교육은 일본의 과학교육의 동향에 따른 교과과정 및 교수요지가 국내 중등학교의 과학 교과과정과 과학교육 방침에도 반영되어 실시되었다. 특히, 1930년대 초기는 미국의 `General Science' 교육사상의 영향을 받은 일본 과학교육에 따라 일반이과, 응용이과 등이 설치된 과학교육이 국내에서도 실시되었다. 당시 물리교과서는 전부 일본어로 된 것으로 일본의 과학교수 요목에 따라 개발된 것이었고, 그 내용은 1920년대의 정성적 실험에서 점차 현재 교과서와 같은 실험과정으로 제시되었으며, 정량적 실험이 강조되는 경향으로 나타났다. 또한, 물리교과서에 실린 문제와 삽화는 점차적으로 많이 제시되는 경향을 찾아 볼 수 있었다. 학교에서의 과학 교수단계는 예비, 교수, 제시의 단계로 실시되었고, 과학교육에서는 실험을 통한 귀납적 접근을 강조하고 있었다. 당시의 중등학교의 교육계획서에는 오늘날과 같은 구체적인 과학 교육방침, 과학과 교수요목, 교육방법 등이 제시되어 있었다. 이 연구의 결과, 우리나라의 바람직한 물리교육의 발전과 효율적인 과학교육 과정 운영을 위해서는 우리의 학교 현장에 알맞은 교육방법 및 교육내용의 개발이 필요함을 시사한다.


This study is to investigate the changes of physics curricula, the contents of physics textbooks, and science education instructions issued by Korea's middle schools of the 1930s in order to conduct a historical review regarding the middle-school physics education of the era. Science education curricula of the era were organized and implemented in line with the trend of Japanese science education, which was influenced by the educational thought of `General Science' stemming from the U.S.A. In particular, the curricula and the instructions reflected science curricula and teaching gists appearing in Japanese educational statutes of the era. The contents of the textbooks, compared to qualitative physics experiments of the 1920s, put emphasis on quantitative experiments and presented an experimental process designed to be conducted by students. It also offered more physics problems and illustrations than before to be conducive to the study of physics. The three-step approach for physics teaching was comprised of preparation, teaching, and presentation and was transformed from Herbart's Educational Theory, which was widely used in middle schools. Among other things, the approach emphasized the inductive method. This study suggests that a teaching method and content suited for each school be initiated in order for the Science Teaching Process to be implemented directly in schools.


This study is to investigate the changes of physics curricula, the contents of physics textbooks, and science education instructions issued by Korea's middle schools of the 1930s in order to conduct a historical review regarding the middle-school physics education of the era. Science education curricula of the era were organized and implemented in line with the trend of Japanese science education, which was influenced by the educational thought of `General Science' stemming from the U.S.A. In particular, the curricula and the instructions reflected science curricula and teaching gists appearing in Japanese educational statutes of the era. The contents of the textbooks, compared to qualitative physics experiments of the 1920s, put emphasis on quantitative experiments and presented an experimental process designed to be conducted by students. It also offered more physics problems and illustrations than before to be conducive to the study of physics. The three-step approach for physics teaching was comprised of preparation, teaching, and presentation and was transformed from Herbart's Educational Theory, which was widely used in middle schools. Among other things, the approach emphasized the inductive method. This study suggests that a teaching method and content suited for each school be initiated in order for the Science Teaching Process to be implemented directly in schools.