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Objective : The purpose of this study was to describe a surgical technique of axillary approach of percutaneous endoscopic interlaminar discectomy for L5-S1 disc herniation and its preliminary results. Methods : From July 2002 to September 2003, 101 patients with lumbar radiculopathy due to L5-S1 disc herniation, who were treated by percutaneous interlaminar endoscopic discectomy, were retrospectively reviewed. There were 57 males and 44 females with a mean age of 44.8 years (range, 18 to 62 years). The surgery consisted of needle insertion into the epidural space via the interlaminar space, sequential dilatation, and endoscopic discectomy through the axillary area of the S1 root. Results : The mean follow-up period was 14.5 months and the average surgical time was 41 min. According to the modified Macnab criteria, 44 patients (43.6%) had excellent outcomes, 49 (48.5%) had good results and only 8 (7.8%) had fair or poor outcomes. Four patients had a revision microdiscectomy due to incomplete removal of disc fragment. There were no major complications related to this surgical approach. Conclusion : Axillary approach of percutaneous endoscopic interlaminar discectomy is safe and effective procedure for the treatment of L5-S1 disc herniation. It combines the advantages of MED and conventional percutaneous endoscopic discectomy.