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Objective : The aim of this study is to assess the immediate and long-term efficacy of percutaneous vertebroplasty for treating painful vertebral osteoporotic fractures. Methods : A retrospective review of 149patients who had undergone 167 vertebroplasty procedures for osteoporotic fractures was performed. Clinical, radiologic, and procedural datas were analyzed as parameters of prognostic significance, including age, sex, bone marrow density score, symptom duration, bone cement filling grade, number of fractured vertebrae, compression grade of vertebrae, leakage of bone cement, volume of bone cement injected and complications. Results : In 158 of the 167 procedures assessed, immediate pain relief was obtained (94.6%). The extent of collapse of the vertebral body was assessed as a parameter for prognostic significance (p=0.015). Three months postoperatively, no improvement of the pain was observed in four of the 167 procedures that had undergone the vertebroplasty (2%). At long term follow-up, the improvement of pain was not correlated with the compression grade of vertebrae (p=0.420). Conclusion : The immediate outcome of vertebroplasty are less effective in vertebrae more collapsed.