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Objective : Percutaneous kyphoplasty using a balloon-catheter is an widely accepted method which achieves the restoration of vertebral height and the correction of kyphotic deformity with little complication in osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. The authors assess the results of 59 patients who underwent kyphoplasty, and analyze the factors that could affect the prognosis. Methods : From December 2001 to May 2003, fifty-nine patients underwent kyphoplasty. The patients included 49 women and 10 men aged 52-85 years. Average t-score on bone marrow density was -3.58. About 7cc of polymethylmethacrylate(PMMA) was injected into the fractured vertebral body using Kyphon under local anesthesia. The vertical height of all fractured vertebrae was measured both before and after surgery. Outcome data were obtained by comparing pre- and post-operative VAS score and by assessing postoperative satisfaction, drug dependency and activity. Various clinical factors were analyzed to assess the relationship with the outcome. Results : The VAS score improved significantly, and the mean percentage of restored vertebral height was 53%. The mean improvement in kyphosis was 3.6。. Eighty-nine percent of the patients gained excellent or good results. Any of the clinical factors including the interval between fracture and operation, the degree of height loss, the degree of the vertebral height restoration or the correction rate of kyphosis did not affect the clinical results. Conclusion : Kyphoplasty is associated with a statistically significant improvement in pain and function with little complication. The clinical results are not affected by any clinical parameters. Further follow-up study is needed to determine whether the restoration affects the long-term clinical results.