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This study purposes to analyse the problems of the construction of the contents in the actual art textbooks and to explore the constructions of new contents for improvement. In the first place, this study discusses about the vague and obscure character of the contents. In fact, this character is caused by the construction focused into superficial expression subjects and methods and, consequently, results the repetition of the same contents without consideration on the grades. Following, this study examines the important points in the construction of the contents in art education based on the concept 'transposition didactique'. It is important to select the questions which permit to understand the artistic facts, to approach to the artistic questions posed in the history, and to led the students to access to the different art creations. Finally, this study explores the constructions of new contents as space, light, gesture and movement in the work arts, plastic heterogeneity and homogeneity, representation and resemblance, re-presentation and presentation, the question of non title, etc. And this study presents an example for the organization of the contents according to the different grades.