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The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 8 weeks periods of aerobic training and same periods of detraining on plasma fasting leptin and insulin concentration in obese pre-pubertal children. The subjects of present study were divided by two groups; 20 obese pre-pubertal children group(OB; age:14.2±0.22yrs, height:160.1±6.17cm, weight:76.2±13.4kg, % body fat:35.2±4.79 %, BMI(weight(kg)/height(m2):29.8±5.46) and 20 non-obese pre-pubertal children group(NO; age:14.1±0.18yrs, height:168.0±6.03cm, weight:56.1±5.90kg, % body fat:15.0±4.45 %, BMI(weight(kg)/height(m2) :19.9±3.21). Both OB and NO participated in HR max test to calculate their 60% HR max exercise intensity. All subjects engaged in aerobic training for 2-months and then ceased the aerobic training for next 2 month. The mean plasma fasting leptin concentration of OB group following the training and detraining period was higher than that of NO group, and there were significant differences between OB and NO groups(p<.05). The mean plasma fasting insulin concentration of NO group following the training and detraining period was lower than that of OB group, and so there were significant differences between NO and OB groups(p<.05). In conclusion, the results of this study confirm that aerobic training and detraining played a major role in the increased insulin sensitivity and decreased insulin resistance in non obese and obese pre-pubertal children. Also, insulin might be involved in the training and detraining effect of plasma leptin concentration in obese pre-pubertal children, but it dose not appear to relate plasma leptin in non obese pre-pubertal children.