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Molecular imaging visualizes cellular processes at a molecular or genetic level in living subjects, and diverse molecular probes are used for this purpose. Radiolabeling methods as well as radioisotopes are very important in preparation of molecular probes, because they can affect the biodistribution in tissues and the excretion route. In this review, the molecular probes are divided into small organic molecules and macromolecules such as peptides and proteins, and their commonly used radiolabeling methods are described.