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To identify risk factors of canine distemper, which is one of the most important disease of dogs in Korea, a case-control study was performed with 2,507 cases and 4,121 controls from 630 veterinary clinics throughout Korea. In multivariate logistic regression models, the sampling period (Mars and April) and the age of the dogs (7-12 months old) were associated with an increased risk of canine distemper. Sex, body size and residential region showed no significant relationship. The epidemiological evidences of canine distemper in Korea agree to the risk factors observed in foreign countries.