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In this study, we found that sperm ball of Urechis unicinctus consisted of a somatic cell and spermatogenic cells. After separation from the sperm ball, individual spermatid floated freely in the coelomic fluid and differentiated into a mature sperm. Because of many nuclear vacuoles, spermatid nucleus was observed to be heterogeneous. Later, the spermatid nucleus condensed into the homogeneous round nucleus of the mature sperm. Perinuclear microtubules could be seen but did not seem to be organized into manchette microtubules. To understand the nature of nuclear condensation during spermiogenesis, the sperm and spermatids (spermiogenic cells) were treated with FITC-phalloidin, or anti-actin-FITC, or labeled with anti-actin immunogold particles (AAIP; 10nm) followed by transmission electron microscopy or confocal laser scanning microscopy. The anti-actin-FITC and FITC-phalloidin reactions occurred distinctly in the nuclei of both spermiogenic cells. FITC-phalloidin reacted more intensely with acrosomes. The AAIP were incorporated mainly into nuclei of both cells sometimes showing local distribution in the nucleus. Nuclear vacuoles of spermatids disappeared progressively with condensation of the nucleus, as the number of incorporated AAIP/m2 increased. These results suggest that nuclear actin microfilaments might be closely related to nuclear condensation.