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End-stage renal disease is a fatal and devastatingdisease that is caused by progressive and irreversible lossof functioning nephrons in the kidney. Dialysis and renaltransplantation are the common treatments at present, butthese treatments have severe limitations. The present studyinvestigated the possibility of reconstructing renal tissues bytransplantation of renal precursor cells to replace the currenttreatments for end-stage renal disease. Embryonic renalprecursor cells, freshly isolated from metanephroi of rat fetusat day 15 post-gestation, were seeded on biodegradable polymerscaffolds and transplanted into peritoneal cavities of athymic micefor three weeks. Histologic sections stained with hematoxylin& eosin and periodic acid-Schiff revealed the formation ofprimitive glomeruli, tubules, and blood vessels, suggestingthe potential of embryonic renal precursor cells to reconstituterenal tissues. Immunohistochemical staining for proliferatingcell nuclear antigen, a marker of proliferating cells, showedintensive nuclear expression in the regenerated renal structures,suggesting renal tissue reconstitution by transplanted embryonicrenal precursor cells. This study demonstrates the reconstitutionof renal tissue in vivo by transplanting renal precursor cellswith biodegradable polymer scaffolds, which could be utilizedas a new method for partial or full restoration of renal structureand function in the treatment of end-stage renal disease.