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Frequently used for humans as a nonsteroidalanti-inflammatory drug, naproxen has been known to induceulcerative gastric lesions. The present study was undertakento investigate the in vivo therapeutic effect of astaxanthin,isolated from a Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous mutant, againstnaproxen-induced gastric antral ulceration in rats. The ratswere treated with three doses of astaxanthin [1, 5, and 25 mg/kg body weight (B.W.), respectively] once daily for 2 weeksafter pretreatment of 80 mg of naproxen/kg B.W. twice dailyfor 3 days, while the control rats received only 80mg of naproxen/kg B.W. twice daily for 3 days. The oral administration ofastaxanthin (1, 5, and 25 mg/kg B.W.) showed a curative effectagainst naproxen (80 mg/kg B.W.)-induced gastric antral ulcerand reduced the elevated lipid peroxide level in gastric mucosa.In addition, astaxanthin treatment resulted in significant increasein the activities of radical scavenging enzymes such assuperoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Ahistologic examination clearly proved that acute gastric mucosallesion induced by naproxen nearly disappeared after theastaxanthin treatment. These results suggest that astaxanthineliminated the lipid peroxides and free radicals induced bynaproxen and may be a potential candidate for remedy ofgastric ulceration.