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Wolbachia is a group of Gram-negative, obligatory intracellular and maternally transmitted alpha-Proteobacteria. They have been reported to establish symbiotic relationships with a great variety of species of the most diverse animal class, the insects, as well as with several other arthropods and with filarial nematodes. The reproductive alterations Wolbachia causes in its hosts account for its widespreaddistribution. These alterations include parthenogenesis, feminization, male killing, and cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI is the most frequent and best studied effect Wolbachia has on its hosts. CI is a form of male sterility, ultimately resulting in embryo lethality in diplodiploid host species. As a consequence of CI, Wolbachia infections spread and lead to the replacement of uninfected populations. CI was used nearly four decades ago to control important disease vectors with very encouraging results, and a number of more recent studies have confirmed the effectiveness of CI as a pest population suppression tool as well as a driving mechanism. Furthermore, recent advancements in the field encourage the development of Wolbachia-based methods for the biological control of insect pests and disease vectors of agricultural, environmental and medical importance.