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본고에서는 최근의 생명과학기술의 발전으로 인해 헌법학이 직면하고 있는 미출생 생명의 헌법상의 지위에 대해서 고찰하였다. 즉 미출생 생명이라 할 수 있는 수정란의 생성 및 잔여배아(embryo)의 폐기, 태아(fetus), 체세포배아복제 등의 문제에 대해 생명의 시기를 언제로 볼 것인가? 또한 생명권과 인간의 존엄을 결합하여 볼 것인가, 아니면 분리하여 볼 것인가 등의 헌법적 문제에 대해 검토하였다. 기존의 독일의 통설과 판례는 듀리히(Drig)의 객체공식(Objekt formel)에 근거해서 미출생 생명에 대해 인간의 존엄성과 생명권을 결합시켜 고찰함으로써 생명과학기술의 발전으로 인한 헌법상의 문제에 대해서 충분한 설명을 하지 못하였다. 이를 극복하기 위해 나온 튜리(M. Tooly)의 Person론이나 엔겔하트(H. Engelhardt)의 수정된 Person론도 자기의식이 존재하지 않거나, 최소한의 사회적 상호작용에 참여하지 못한 태아나 중증장애인 등에 대해서 인격이라 할 수 없게 되어, 헌법상의 인간 존엄성의 주체가 될 수 없다는 논리적 귀결에 이르는 문제점을 지니고 있었다.따라서 본고에서는 독일의 최근의 학설처럼 미출생 생명의 헌법상의 지위는 인간의 존엄과 분리시켜서 생명권으로부터의 파악이 필요하다는 점을 확인하였다. 다만, 필자는 생명을 ‘생물학적 의미의 생명’과 ‘인격적 의미의 생명’으로 구분하고, ‘인격적 의미의 생명’의 시기에 대해서는 수정란이 자궁에 착상하여 원시선이 나타나는 14일 전후가 아니라, 개체의 자기동일성 즉 인격이 형성되는 뇌생 이후의 시기로 보아야 한다는 점과, 뇌생 이전의 ‘생물학적 의미의 생명’은 장래 세대의 보호를 위해 객관법적 보호대상이 된다는 점을 제시하였다.


<Abstract> A Study on Human Dignity and Unborn Life’s Position in Constitutional Law Min, Byung-Ro* This study contemplates current issues on unborn life’s position in constitutional law which has been caused by the development of biotechnology. There is especially an argument on which period we should consider the beginning of life and whether we should provide human embryos with human dignity and right to life altogether, or with them separately. In Germany, the common view and the judicial precedents for unborn life have accepted D&uuml;rig's Objekt formel that considers human dignity and right of life altogether. However, D&uuml;rig's view on unborn lives does not seem to account for the constitutional problem of development of biotechnology. Although Tooly's Theory of Person and Engelhardt's revision of the Theory of Person attempt to overcome the constitutional problem due to the development of biotechnology, their view concludes that fetus or seriously-handicapped person without self-consciousness and social interaction is not the subject of human dignity in the constitution. That view is personally unacceptable. An acceptable view from H. Dreier argues that unborn life should only be considered their right to life, separating it from human dignity in the constitution. However, even though H. Dreier's overall view is acceptable, his view of the beginning of life from about fourteen days differs from my personal point of view that the beginning of life should be accounted for the period of brain formation in about twelve weeks. This study will deal with the issue. Key words: Human Cloning, Right to Life, Human Dignity, Begin of Life, Unborn Life


<Abstract> A Study on Human Dignity and Unborn Life’s Position in Constitutional Law Min, Byung-Ro* This study contemplates current issues on unborn life’s position in constitutional law which has been caused by the development of biotechnology. There is especially an argument on which period we should consider the beginning of life and whether we should provide human embryos with human dignity and right to life altogether, or with them separately. In Germany, the common view and the judicial precedents for unborn life have accepted D&uuml;rig's Objekt formel that considers human dignity and right of life altogether. However, D&uuml;rig's view on unborn lives does not seem to account for the constitutional problem of development of biotechnology. Although Tooly's Theory of Person and Engelhardt's revision of the Theory of Person attempt to overcome the constitutional problem due to the development of biotechnology, their view concludes that fetus or seriously-handicapped person without self-consciousness and social interaction is not the subject of human dignity in the constitution. That view is personally unacceptable. An acceptable view from H. Dreier argues that unborn life should only be considered their right to life, separating it from human dignity in the constitution. However, even though H. Dreier's overall view is acceptable, his view of the beginning of life from about fourteen days differs from my personal point of view that the beginning of life should be accounted for the period of brain formation in about twelve weeks. This study will deal with the issue. Key words: Human Cloning, Right to Life, Human Dignity, Begin of Life, Unborn Life