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The higher cognitive functions of the human brain including learning are hypothesized to be selectively distributed across large-scale neural networks interconnected to the cortical and subcortical areas. Recently, advances in functional imaging have made it possible to visualize the brain areas activated by certain cognitive activities in vivo. Neural substrates for learning and motivation have also begun to be revealed. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a non-invasive indirect mapping of cerebral activity, based on the blood- oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast which is based on the localized hemodynamic changes following neural activities in certain areas of the brain. The fMRI method is now becoming an essential tool used to define the neuro- functional mechanisms of higher brain functions such as memory, language, attention, learning, plasticity and emotion. Further research in the field of education will accelerate the verification of the effects on learning or help in the selection of model teaching strategies. Thus, the purpose of this study was to review brain study methods using fMRI in science education. In conclusion, a number of possible strategies using fMRI for the study of elementary science education were suggested.