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The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of basketball training according to positions on body composition, the blood leptin, melatonin, and growth hormone. The subjects for this study were eleven female basketball athletes and five healthy female university students who participated in this experiment voluntarily and didn't have any disease. Based on the results of body composition and blood analysis, one-way ANOVA was performed. The major results are as follows. BMI and percent body fat exhibited high values in center, forward, guard in order. Percent muscle mass exhibited low values in center, forward, guard in order. But, there were no significant difference in BMI, percent body fat and percent muscle mass. Athlete's blood leptin level was lower than normal control group. But there was no significant difference among groups. Blood growth hormone level showed no significant difference among groups. Guard's blood melatonin was significantly higher than that of forward, center, and control. Although we could not detect any difference according to the positions in BMI, percent body fat, percent muscle mass, blood leptin, and growth hormone according to long-term basketball training, these data indicate that long-term basketball training can differently affect melatonin production and secretion related to anti-oxidation, anti-aging, and the function of immune.