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2. As a result of combined anodization and thermal treatment, t here were no effects on com-position of crystalline structure. But, heat treatment influenc ed the quantity of formation ofthe oxide products (rutile / anatase).3. Roughness decreased in the order of groups 7,5,2,3,6,4,1 and there was statistical differencebetween group 7 and the others (p<0.05), but group 7 did not sh ow any bioactivity withina week. 4. In groups that implanted ions (Ca/P) on the oxide layer thro ugh current and voltage control,showed superior morphology, and oxide products, but did not exp ress any bioactivitywithin a week. 5. In group 3, the oxide layer was uniformly organized with rut ile, with almost no titanium peak.And there were abnormally more [101] orientations of rutile cry stalline structure, and bone-like apatite formation could be seen around these crystalline s tructures.