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This study investigates aggressive children's perceptions of their social acceptance in conjunction with peer ratings of social acceptance. The subjects were 520 children in the fifth through sixth grades. Children completed questionnaires that assessed self-perceptions of social acceptance. In addition, they completed peer nominations that assessed peer victimization, aggression, and peer acceptance, while their teachers rated children's externalizing problems. The results suggest that aggressive children's self-perceived social acceptance is inflated in relation to the ratings of their peers. For aggressive-rejected children, a highly positive self-perception was shown to be not a protective factor, but rather a defensive posture that places the children at added risk.