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Natural and absorbable polymers have been used for many pharmaceutical and biomedical applications for several decades. Of these polymers, the application of chitosan and hyaluronic acid based polymers has received a great deal of attention in the past 15 years for use in controlled drug delivery systems, tissue repair, tissue engineering, and controlling certain biological events. Interest in synthetic absorbable polymers has grown considerably over the last three decades, principally because of their transient nature when used as biochemical implants or drug carriers. Recently, however, investigators have revived interest in naturally derived polymers. The genesis of absorbable polymers was driven by the need to replace the highly tissue-reactive, absorbable, collagen-based sutures with synthetic polymers, which elicit milder tissue response. Technology of absorbable/biodegradable polymers has evolved in two independent areas. The evolution of natural polymers took place through chain modification of existing materials using chemical means or modulating the biosynthetic functional properties. On the other hand, the evolution of synthetic polymers has been achieved through modulating their chemical composition using several polymerisation techniques and, to a lesser extent, chemical modification of presynthesized polymers.