초록 close

폴란드의 나치과거 청산: ‘8월 포고령’과 ‘중앙위원회’의 활동을 중심으로 폴란드에서 나치의 전쟁/점령범죄에 대한 처리는 이미 전쟁 직후에 시작되었으나, 처벌은 1944년의 ‘8월 포고령’과 1945년 ‘중앙위원회’의 설치로 본격화되었다. 폴란드에서 자행된 나치독일의 전쟁/점령범죄 처벌에 제도적 기반을 제공한 ‘8월 포고령’은 이후 몇 차례의 개정을 거쳐 현재까지도 유효하다. 또한 ‘중앙위원회’는 전쟁/점령범죄 행위와 관련된 자료의 조사와 수집, 그와 관련된 국내외 조사결과의 출판 및 외국의 유사기관과의 협력 등을 과제로 설정했다. ‘중앙위원회’는 ‘지역위원회’, ‘최고민족재판소’, ‘유엔전쟁범죄위원회’, ‘폴란드군조사단’ 등 여러 파트너들과 협력하여 현재까지 약 20,000명 정도의 전쟁범죄 관련자들을 처벌할 수 있는 근거자료를 제공했다. ‘중앙위원회’는 1950년에 연구기관으로 전환되었다가 1950년대 후반 독일에서 ‘규명센터’의 설치를 계기로 다시 본연의 활동을 개시했다. 그리고 1970년대 초 서독과 폴란드 사이에 외교관계가 열리면서 나치범죄의 추적을 위한 양국의 협력관계는 더욱 긴밀해졌다. ‘중앙위원회’는 1989/90년의 체제전환과 더불어 활동의 중심을 스탈린주의적인 범죄로까지 확대했고, 1998년에는 ‘민족기억연구소’의 한 부서로 현재까지 활동하고 있다. 폴란드의 과거사 정리는 처음부터 국내외 관련기관과의 긴밀한 공조 위에서 진행되었고, 냉전으로부터 강한 영향을 받았으며, 제도적인 기반 위에서 실행되었다. 폴란드의 과거사 정리는 자료의 철저한 수집과 정리, 관련기관과의 긴밀한 협조, 자료의 출판, 대중교육, 그리고 조직적이고 체계적인 연구 등으로 이어졌다. 이는 과거사 정리의 모범적인 사례에 속한다.


Coming to Terms with the NS-Past in Poland by ‘August Decree’ and Main Commission This article explored the coming to terms with the past in the German-occupied Poland during the communist regime (1944~1989). The first attempts to document German war crimes were undertaken as early as end 1939, but the ‘August Decree’ was one of the first acts of legislation to be issued by the ‘Polish Committee of National Liberation’(PCNL). This ‘Decree’, still in force today, stipulated the punishment for Nazi criminals guilty of killing and torturing civilians and POWs, as well as of traitors of the Polish Nation. The task of documenting war crimes was entrusted to the ‘Commission for the Investigation of German Crimes in Poland’, created in October 1944 by PCNL and called the ‘Main Commission’. The task of Main Commission was to investigate German Crimes committed against Polish citizens during the wartime. The Main Commission cooperated with its several national and international partners and provided legal assistance to foreign courts and public prosecutors. After the fall of communist regime in Poland the Main Commission could be able to prosecute crimes committed by Soviet and Polish Regimes, that ist, Stalinist crimes before 1956 and crimes against humanity before 1989. The Institute for National Remembrance, established 1998, included the activities of Main Commission. Main Commission is a good example of coming to terms with the past: its international cooperations, systematic collections of documents, publication of materials, and organizational research.


Coming to Terms with the NS-Past in Poland by ‘August Decree’ and Main Commission This article explored the coming to terms with the past in the German-occupied Poland during the communist regime (1944~1989). The first attempts to document German war crimes were undertaken as early as end 1939, but the ‘August Decree’ was one of the first acts of legislation to be issued by the ‘Polish Committee of National Liberation’(PCNL). This ‘Decree’, still in force today, stipulated the punishment for Nazi criminals guilty of killing and torturing civilians and POWs, as well as of traitors of the Polish Nation. The task of documenting war crimes was entrusted to the ‘Commission for the Investigation of German Crimes in Poland’, created in October 1944 by PCNL and called the ‘Main Commission’. The task of Main Commission was to investigate German Crimes committed against Polish citizens during the wartime. The Main Commission cooperated with its several national and international partners and provided legal assistance to foreign courts and public prosecutors. After the fall of communist regime in Poland the Main Commission could be able to prosecute crimes committed by Soviet and Polish Regimes, that ist, Stalinist crimes before 1956 and crimes against humanity before 1989. The Institute for National Remembrance, established 1998, included the activities of Main Commission. Main Commission is a good example of coming to terms with the past: its international cooperations, systematic collections of documents, publication of materials, and organizational research.