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빅토리아 시대, 특히 1830년대부터 1870년대까지 영국은 종교, 정치, 사회적으로 이전에는 찾아볼 수 없었던 개혁을 이루었다. 이 시기 개혁의 원동력과 견인차이자 영국 민주화 과정의 성격과 방향을 규정한 주요 이념은 자유주의였다. 19세기(빅토리아 중기) 영국 민주주의의 전개와 발전에 기여한 자유주의는 19세기 말 보수당의 장기 집권(1885~1905)과 사회주의의 등장, 노동당의 창당 등으로 인해 19세기의 이념적 유산으로 치부되는 경향이 있다. 이와 달리 이 논문은 19세기 개혁기에 작동한 자유주의가 3차 선거법 개정으로 대중민주주의의 문을 여는 1880년대부터 남여 보통선거권(21세)이 정착하는 1928년까지도 영국 민주화 과정을 이끈 주요한 이념적 토대였음을 보여주고자 한다. 즉 자유주의는 개혁의 시대인 19세기 중반에만 작동했던 것이 아니라 이후에도 다각적인 방식으로 영국 민주화의 추동력이 되었다. 이를 보여주기 위해 이 논문은 1880~1928년을 중심으로 신자유주의와 영국사회주의, 의회개혁을 고찰함으로써 빅토리아 시대 자유주의가 이후 어떻게 전개, 발전되어 갔는지를 밝히고 이 시기 민주화 과정에서 작동한 자유주의의 성격과 한계를 규명한다.


The Ideological Features of Democratization in Britain(1880-1928): Liberalism and Its Descendents Lee, Hwa Yong In the nineteenth century (in particular from 1830 to 1880) a series of unprecedented reforms were instituted in Britain through the development of radicalism, a challenging of the privileges enjoyed by Anglicans and the enlightened elites’s efforts for social reforms. Liberalism was the driving force for the reforms which regulated the character and the direction of democratization in nineteenth-century Britain. However, it has been argued that liberalism was simply the ideological product of the nineteenth century (the Victorian middle period), as it was followed by new factors, such as the long-term seizure of political power by the Conservatives(1885~1905), the emergence of socialism and the establishment of the Labour party. Contrary to this interpretation, this paper intends to argue that liberalism was still the main ideological basis on which British democratization was built in the late nineteenth century and the early twenty century(from 1880 until 1928). This paper therefore seeks to elaborate the development and the contribution of liberalism in the process of democratization even after the Victorian middle period of Britain. It achieves this by examining the new-liberalism, British socialism and the parliamentary reforms of the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century. It also explores those characteristics of liberalism which worked for and limited democratization.


The Ideological Features of Democratization in Britain(1880-1928): Liberalism and Its Descendents Lee, Hwa Yong In the nineteenth century (in particular from 1830 to 1880) a series of unprecedented reforms were instituted in Britain through the development of radicalism, a challenging of the privileges enjoyed by Anglicans and the enlightened elites’s efforts for social reforms. Liberalism was the driving force for the reforms which regulated the character and the direction of democratization in nineteenth-century Britain. However, it has been argued that liberalism was simply the ideological product of the nineteenth century (the Victorian middle period), as it was followed by new factors, such as the long-term seizure of political power by the Conservatives(1885~1905), the emergence of socialism and the establishment of the Labour party. Contrary to this interpretation, this paper intends to argue that liberalism was still the main ideological basis on which British democratization was built in the late nineteenth century and the early twenty century(from 1880 until 1928). This paper therefore seeks to elaborate the development and the contribution of liberalism in the process of democratization even after the Victorian middle period of Britain. It achieves this by examining the new-liberalism, British socialism and the parliamentary reforms of the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century. It also explores those characteristics of liberalism which worked for and limited democratization.