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중화민국 성립기 소학교의 修身敎科와 尊孔讀經에 의해 이루어진 공민도덕교육은 가장 구체적인 국민양성프로그램이었다. 蔡元培의 신교육방향과 중화민국 교육방침에 의해 기획된 국민상은 자유와 평등 및 책임·준법·질서 의식 등으로 훈련된 근대 공민이었다. 이를 실현시킬 소학교의 수신교과는 개인덕목을 기초로 가정·학교·사회·국가를 유지하기 위한 공민의식과 자질을 가르쳤고, 전통도덕은 변용 혹은 청산대상이 되었다. 그러나 원세개의 집권이후 존공독경이 재개되고 유교윤리가 강조되면서 帝制운동을 뒷받침 했다. 전통적으로 개인과 가족 중심의 윤리관에 토대를 둔 사회심리가 전환기에 갈등을 일으킨 것이다. 또한 교육개혁을 위한 인적 물적 토대가 갖추어지지 않은 채 소수의 해외유학파에 의해 서구의 제도와 사상이 급속히 이식되면서 혼란은 불가피했다. 민국 성립기의 國民像은 공민도덕교육의 내용을 통해 알 수 있는데 예의범절과 준법질서에 의한 公共性를 중시하였다. 정치적으로는 자유·평등과 공인 의식을 갖춘 공화국민으로서 서구와 차이가 없었다. 다만 서양사회에 비하여 개인수양을 앞세우고 공동체의 일원으로서 원만한 관계유지에 필요한 의무와 권리를 강조하는 등 전통적 윤리의식이 그대로 남아있었다. 교육방침도 忠君·尊孔 등 유교적 색채가 엷어졌지만 공화제에 부응하기 위한 선언일 뿐 교육과정에서는 유교윤리와 공민의식이 함께 교육되었다. 더구나 원세개의 집권이후로는 교육전반에 보수화 경향이 팽배하였다. 결국 민국성립기의 계획된 국민과 교육을 통해 길러진 국민은 서로 달랐고, 民權의 소유자이자 主權의 행사자로서 공화국민은 아직 형성되지 않았다.


During an early stage of the Republic of China, civic virtues education achieved by moral culture as well as veneration of Confucius and chant the Confucian classics was the most concrete training program for people. The national image to be planned by both a new educational line of Cai Yuan Pei and an educational policy of the Republic of China demanded modern citizens to be highly disciplined with a sense of liberty, equality, responsibility, law-abidingness and order. In order to this, the course of moral culture in an elementary school taught the consciousness and the quality of citizens, which was absolutely required to keep a home, a school, a society, and a country. As the result, traditional morals were regarded as the subject of an transformation and liquidation. However, after Yuan Shi Kai took power, veneration of Confucius and chant the Confucian classics was repeated and Confucian ethics was also stressed. These efforts produced a result to back up an emperor system. Social psychology founded on their conventional view of ethics focusing on an individual and a family was finally to give rise to complications. Besides, as Western culture and ideas were rapidly flowed in, without preparing all the necessary human and material resources, wild confusion was inevitable.– 223 – When we consider the contents of civic virtues education, we can notice that the national image of this period-an early stage of the Republic of China-valued the public good based on manners and the law-abiding order above everything else. It politically differed little from the West as the republican who had liberty, equality, and citizenship. Compared to the West, it just made spiritual culture go ahead and placed particular emphasis on duties and rights required to keep amicable relations as a member of community. Chinese conventional morality also remained in it. Though Confucian trends like loyalty and veneration of Confucius were relieved in the educational policy, these trials were only a declaration for answering republicanism. Confucianism and citizenship were taught together in its curriculum and, what was more, conservatism overflowed in the whole range of education since Yuan Shi Kai took power. In short, the people intended during an early stage of the Republic of China was one thing, the countrymen trained by means of education was another. The republican, in the true sense, as the owner of civil rights and sovereign power was not formed yet.– 224 –