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Under the situation of a fire, it is difficult for a rescue robot to use sensors such as vision sensor, ultrasonic sensor or laser distance sensor because of diffusion, refraction or block of light and sound by dense smoke. But, braille blocks that are installed for the visaully impaired at public places such as subway stations can be used as a map for autonomous mobile robots localization and navigation. In this paper, we developed a laser sensor scan device which can detect braille blcoks in spite of dense smoke and integrated the device to the robot developed to carry out rescue mission in various hazardous disaster areas at KIST. We implemented MCL algorithm for robots attitude estimation according to the scanned data and transformed a braille block map to a topological map and designed a nonlinear path tracking controller for autonomous navigation. From various simulations and experiments, we could verify that the developed laser sensor device and the proposed localization method are effective to autonomous tracking of braille blocks and the autonomous navigation robot system can be used for rescue under fire.