초록 close

高麗 顯宗·德宗代 對契丹(遼) 관계를 둘러싼 관리들 간의 갈등 현종 원년 거란의 침입을 당한 이후, 고려에서는 대거란 강경론과 온건론이 번갈아 채택되었다. 대거란 강경론자의 대부분은 과거급제자였으며, 온건론자들도 과거 출신자들이었다. 따라서 대외관계에 있어서 온건론을 견지한 인물들은 과거 출신 유학자들로서 사대주의자들이었다는 신채호의 주장은 반드시 정당한 것이라고 할 수 없다. 과거의 합격 여부가 대거란 강경론과 온건론의 기준이 된 것은 아니었다. 대거란 강경론을 주장한 인물들은 대체로 현종의 측근들이었다. 그들은 대외관계를 이용하여 왕권을 강화하려고 하였다. 고려와 거란 간의 긴장관계는 정치적 위기를 조장하여 왕권을 강화하는 데 도움이 되었기 때문이다. 많은 관리들은 이에 반대하여 대거란 온건론을 주장하였다. 대거란 강경론은 현종 18년 이후 덕종대까지 지속되었다. 그러나 왕권강화에 반대한 관리들은 대거란 강경론에 비판적이었다. 결국 덕종의 장인이며 대거란 강경론자인 왕가도가 실각한데 이어 덕종도 젊은 나이에 사망하였다.


A Conflict between Political Powers on the Diplomatic Relationship with Khitan(契丹) in Koryo King Hyunjong(顯宗) and Tokjong's(德宗) Reign After Khitan's invasion in the first year of King Hyunjong, a hard line and a moderate line policy toward Khitan were selected alternately in Koryo. Most of the officials of the hawks were the civilians who passed the civil service examination. The moderates were also civilians who passed the civil service examination. Accordingly, Shin Chae-ho's(申采浩) assertion that most of Confucian Scholars in Koryo insisted moderate foreign policy and they could be called xenophobic, was not a proper view. Passing civil service examination was by no means the criterion of the hard-liner and the moderate-liner. The officials who insisted on a hard line policy toward Kitan were on the whole Hyunjong's close associates. They were using the foreign policy to strengthen king's authority. The tension between Koryo and Kitan were conducive to make political crises and that situation was useful to strengthen king's authority. Most of officials were aware of that and they insisted the moderate line policy toward Khitan. The hard line policy continued from the 18th year of the Hyunjong's reign to the reign of King Tokjong who was the successor of Hyunjong. But many officials opposed to the hard-line policy, which meant that most of officials were against strengthening king's authority. After all, Wang Ka-do(王可道), the leader of the hard line policy, who was Tokjong's father-in-law, felled from power and Tokjong died.