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Soon-hyun Hong. 2007. The Characteristics of Vowel Identification Errors of University- level Korean Students of American English: HCA. Language and Linguistics 39, 257-277. In an experiment on American English vowel identification ability by Korean listeners, a forced-choice test was administered to 20 Korean university students of English. The stimuli consisted of 324 syllables in which 9 vowels were presented in 18 onset consonant environments. The stimuli CV sequences were cut out of the pre-recorded speech words from an electronic dictionary, and then about 15% of the last part of the vowels was removed for use as stimuli, to avoid potential lexical and coda consonantal effects. After listening to the stimulus, the subjects were forced to click on one of 9 vowel icons on the screen of the computer. Then Hierarchical Cluster Analysis was conducted, demonstrating that the analysis can detect which specific vowel pairs (or triplets) are relatively more confused than the others within subjects. These results can be used as diagnostics to develop subject-customized English vowel listening practices.